Breeders

The federal law to ban abortion was passed in december 2022, and the task forces where ready for it. No sooner had the ink dried on the documents or the first women where caught. This was easy, just find them in remote places, drug them, take ’em to the lab. Next came the insemination. No reason to traumatize them, touch them as lightly as possible. After insemination : release. Of course the women would be bewildered for a while. Their stories did not trigger a strong or effective response. The way it was done was clean and untraceable.

Soon after the first women noticed they where pregnant. What to do? Report a rape? No suspect, no memory, no physical signs. The pregnancies where to go through. no way to stop it anymore. Some women even thought they where unfortunate accidents. Boyfriends happy or anxious. Now it was even illegal to ask around for ways to abort the pregnancy, so just bear it and smile. A life changing event would happen, whether the women could endure it or not. A new person would be born, needing to be fed and educated..

These hard to notice pregnancies that basically happened under the radar because of legal risks to any woman even investigating abortion, they added men and women to the workforce in time. Not the best positioned one, not the ones from the most fortunate homes. Good soldiers and low wage workers though. Good for the economy. After a century of using low wage low skilled workers abroad now they could be sourced at home.

Of course the quality of the donors was carefully checked, optimized even. The deteriorated legal environment was used to perfect the ‘capture’ of unmarried women, meaning they live and operate in a bubble that gives them no way to organize help or allow anyone to connect the dots that would make the program visible to a wider audience. Some priests already called it immaculate conceptions, and some mothers where hoping their unexpected child was going to be a new messiah.

Republican control over society meant it was kept in such a state of chaos that it was impossible to detect wrongdoing and even if you did, impossible to organize effective action against it. Without even knowing it people’s lives where no longer their own. It didn’t matter because the planet was becoming uninhabitable fast anyway.

In the movie this happens to a well to do highly educated woman that happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time. She turns out to have the means the friends and the wherewithal to find out what happend. What will she do though? And we are not living in a movie. What is described above can actually happen.

Mid Ocean Foam Ridges

Earth is losing albedo, reflectance. One of the reasons for the warm year is likely to be the reduction in sulfur emissions in shipping, which means the atmosphere has been less reflective and let more heat into the oceans. Those are warming up fast.

Ocean heat content is rising

The clusterfuck shitstorm we are in is horrible and our leaders still try to keep the fire burning, simply because the collapse of our fossil dependent money system would be a global catastrophy. Humanity would quickly be cut in half, and the problem would still exist.

Geoengineering is politicized because industry doesn’t want energy to flow into it, it reeks of solutions, and the economy hates those. So the only viable solutions involve renewable energy, organic matter, or regions where nobody wants to live. Those methods are also the easiest to realize.

The oceans can reflect light if they have foam on them, and they do a lot of the time. Ice is not even that reflective, foam is way more reflective. Water itself is almost 100% translucent, so solar heat enters it, gets mixed downward and this is why the oceans warm up.

To keep the oceans and our atmosphere cooler we can cover it. For example with bamboo rafts. Maybe only bamboo weaves are enough. The question is if they will stand up against storms. Covering the ocean increases albedo by at least 30%, which is better than nothing. It provides shade and cool water for animals to rest from the heat. Yes the oceans are enormous, nope it is not a futile exercise.

As long as there are humans to take climate action, then we stand a chance against it. This means we need to give ourselves time by taking action that is effective in maintaining reasonable temperatures.

Years ago I wrote about wind turbines that could help create ice by spraying water into the cold arctic wind. Equally we can use wind turbines to create foam, even though the wind itself creates it. We could also consider adding biomass to the water that increases foaming, even though this can be dangerous to anyone on the water.

Sea foam is biological in orgin..

Often the “how” is secondary to the “what” question. Setting a goal is an important first step. I think we will see settlements mid ocean, in the middle of the Atlantic, in fact on regular intervals between the US and Europe at least, because I expect there to be floating airports. But with today’s technology it is not far fetched to imagine large settlements, not even of armies of floating turbines kept in place by GPS or pulsar sensors (star observation), originating from factories on some coast. Funny to realize that a floating turbine can probably navigate itself to a destination like a sailboat if designed properly.

How may foaming turbines can we build and deploy? What else is needed? Biomass? To grow seaweed to make foaming agent (which normally consists of remnants of cells which have a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic part). This sounds like science fiction, but it may be what we do, after all we need to cool our planet and its oceans.

Hitting an Energy Cost Wall

The UK and EU countries are struggling to provide enough energy to its economy. The problem is not in every energy source, in gasoline the price hikes have been largely accepted. In gas and electricity they are developing. We see a true price shock when it comes to domestic electricity. A kWh now costs .70 Euro where it cost .20 for the longest time. Not great if you run your whole houshold on electricity.

Russia is meanwhile burning gas because it can’t just throttle down wells and shut them. Shutting down a gas well can mean it will not start again, and it is pretty difficult anyway, Statoil had a competition to find solutions to its many leaking (supposedly closed) gasswells. There will be so much methane soon it won’t matter really.

But as the EU tries to starve Russia of cash, Russia tries to crash the EU and make it suffer in the winter. All because of a silly expansionist (or restorist) vision that Putin got indoctrinated with by Dugin (the fascist philospher, yes why not try hard core fascism again!). This is a crisis that is desirable from a CO2 emissions perspective, but the transition will be chaotic, and it seems the bank/fossil lobby is gaining power by it, not losing it. We have too little alternative energy sources!

The lakeys in the right wing parties meanwhile have no solutions, although plenty of renewable energy sources are being built and you can now borrow to install renewables with many banks. But what can they do about a tripling of the power bill. Not much apparently. They always listend to banks, and banks had to always do what the fossil industry liked, and the fossil industry is now failing. The sugar high has to end, there’s not enough sugar!

The focus is still on those with low wages, but a descent household of 2 kids in a well to do home will not like to see so much money evaporated. Companies also pay energy bills. What use is a lot of computers, lights, in a room when your clients suddenly have no money. People are losing a year’s savings or more in some cases. This will men less spending. Deflation of prices until production is depleted and then again inflation, in the EU at least.

At the same time people want to spend on insulation. Some people live in the new homes that are build to require zero energy. Because the grid is used as a buffer even they now have to pay more for electricity they take from the grid than they get for the electricity they give to the grid. The energy system is simply not prepared and has to little storage either for heat or electricity.

Categories
albedoenhancement

Using PET reflectors to Cool Earth

PET bottles are made by the billions each year, to be precise, 583,3 billion, that is 583.300.000.000 bottles which is an insane number, given the world population is only ~7 Billion people (so maybe wrong?)!

Let’s say its half that, so 300 billion bottles. We can make something else from that PET plastic, namely reflective sheets. If we assume the same thickness we can make the same surface area as those bottles. Taking one bottle as 15 cm diameter, 40 cm high, this is .32 m2 of surface, like a common sidewalk pavement tile. If we multiply this we find we have 96.000 square kilometers of surface.

PET based reflector from Yongtek

We can make PET 94% reflective. At the equator the Sun power is 1000 Watt per m2, so this material reflects back 94% of it, which is 940 Watt/m2. For the 96.000 square kilometers this is 9,024 x 10 with 13 zeros, or 90.240.000.000.000 or 90,24 TeraJoule of energy.

The world recieves about 3 400 000 EtaJoule per year, an EtaJoule is 1 with 18 zeros, so 6 more than a TeraJoule. This really is a lot, so the energy send back to space by the reflector may not do much, but it may compensate the loss of sea ice, and it may be used in ways that amplifies its own effect, for instance in mountains, where the colder air then causes snowfall which then cause more white surface to form.

If you reflect 94% of the light back in a region, it will seem like the sun is 94% dimmer there. It will become cold, and rain will fall and probably freeze, I yet have to get a good model to simulate those effects. The wind over the area will also cool down.

If the PET is used on the ocean, preferbly a quiet part of it, then the albedo gain will be quite pronounced. Land Albedo (reflectance) is ~30%, but ocean albedo is near Zero! The water will still be able to radiate heat because the PET will take on the same temperature and will be quite thin. So floating PET on the ocean can help cool it, and the air at the same time.

This kind of idea seems idiotic, but if you consider you can keep oceans alive, seacreatues alive, cool the atmosphere, prevent violent storms (because there will be no evaporation) the advantages start to add up.

Maybe we can stop using PET bottles and cool regions enough so we dont need bottled water anymore!

Comparing Reflection and Temperature

Basic test setup, on insulating material, a piece of paper, a piece of special material, next to it the roof deck.

Check the main page AlbedoEnhancement.com

If the sun beats down on cities in a heat wave, you’d think there’s little you can do. But you can definitely reduce the heat, simply by reflecting light back into space. Its like having bright clouds overhead, the travel time of the light is just a bit longer. Like with clouds whatever is underneath does not recieve the solar radiation. Because the atmosphere is transparent to specific IR radiation it really leaves the planet, it does not warm up anything.

Above you see three materials, paper, special PTFE and plastic roof deck, and their temperatures under direct sunlight. The special PTFE is the coolest, still not the coolest possible temperature but cool enough to endure. White TiO paint will not cool like this meterial does, but I will test it. The trick is to radiate IR in the right frequency band as well. Most white paints don’t. You can see if they do by measuring their efficacy in the shade. If your paint is cooler than other paints in the shade it radiates IR in a different range.

The temperature difference can be quite large already I wonder if one can build an energy source out of a device that is actually shedding energy away from Earth?

The Water Gathering Lake

Lakes are drying up. This is because water absorbs almost all sunlight that hits it. Especially when the wind can carry the layer right above the water away, evaporation will be continuous. Of course if it can’t that layer will be saturated with water vapor, preventing more evaporation, but then the lake will get very warm.

A dew point map showing the temperature at which water condensates in the USA

The air is not dry in many places stricken by drought. That’s where all the water has gone. To get it out the air needs to be cooled to the dew point. Then the water will condensate, form droplets or a puddle. You can see it happen if you have one of those cooling bars you put in the freezer. Just take one out, put it on a plate and observe the water collecting on it, which can be quite a lot.

Dew on a cold bottle of beer suggests its coolness

In principle all ingredients for a full lake are there, especially when the lake evaporates a lot : sun, a basin, a flat surface. What to do? Build a floating heat or solar PV cooling installation on the lake. Heat based cooling uses collected heat energy to compress a cooling gas into a liquid that can then be used to extract heat from the air or maybe even the water. Using heat exchangers/condensers you can then grap a lot of water from the air, and allow it to flow into the lake. Of course you have to prevent water from evaporating at the same time. This you do by shading the lake with the floating solar or thermal collectors. You can apply a few tricks to be even more effective.

The rainmaker system uses mechanical wind energy to drive compressors to cool air and condense water out of it. But it does not seem to make any products at the moment! StartupPolice.com

Especially when it is humid and hot, a dangerous combination, cooling the humidity out of the air provides both water and dry air in which we can perspire. All lakes are fit for water gathering equipment, the question is how simple can we make it, what is the most robust and low cost mechanism. Of course we can also look into ways to get the water out of our atmosphere in other ways..

Solar panels on a lake like this heat up quite a bit. This can be reduced by putting CuO in the laminate. That sends heat right back to space!

Green Walls to Save Energy

Source

Summary of article found here :

It is well known that living walls can reduce air conditioning demands on buildings during hot sunny weather, but little is known about their effectiveness at insulating buildings during cold weather. In this study we investigated the insulating effectiveness of a coating of English ivy Hedera helix covering the North wall of a solid brick-walled building in Manchester, U.K. in late winter 2012. Internal and external wall temperatures were monitored over a 36 day period on both bare and ivy-covered areas of the wall, along with the local ambient temperature. It was shown that the ivy covering increased the mean external wall temperature by 0.5 C and reduced temperature fluctuations; ivy covered walls were on average 1.4 C warmer at night but 1.7 C cooler in the middle of the day. As a consequence, calculated energy losses were reduced by 8%. The covering was more effective on cold days, but at temperatures above 12.2 C the ivy covering increased energy loss, because it shaded the outside of the wall from warming by short wave radiation. The results suggest that evergreen living walls can reduce heating costs, particularly when placed on the North of buildings, whereas on the South side deciduous climbers might be more effective.

Gravity Cooling

As the world warms water that evaporates is going to rain down less easily. This puts more water vapor in the atmosphere, which absorbs heat from the Sun, warming the atmosphere more. This can be a positive feeback cycle with a seriously problematic end.

Hail balls

Luckily nights cool the atmosphere so that rain can start to fall. Most of the times though it will reevaporate as it falls, so no rain after all.

One factor in this process is the absorption of heat by the falling raindrops. The bigger they get the harder this is, I have no absolute numbers. If what is falling is ice, a ball of ice then the ability of the atmosphere to heat it and evaporate it as it falls is reduced, which is why we get hailstorms : The ice reaches the ground.

If a ball of ice falls from the clouds this is a very good thing, because heat has been shed somewhere up there, and a volume of water under 0 Celsius was returned. Of course it develops kinetic energy as it falls. The question whether a ball of ice really cools the Earth depends on the cold tansported minus the heat donated from the impact.

The energy needed to heat one Kg of ice 1 Degree Celsius is 2 KJ. So if 1 Kg ice is -2 Celsius it absorbs 4 KJ to warm it to 0 degrees. Melting ice into water requires a lot of energy though. 334 KJ for 1 Kg, that is quite a lot. So an iceball of 1 Kg of -2 Celsius absorbs 338 KJ of energy while melting.

The energy of a falling Kg of ice depends on how far it falls. The enegy is mass x gravity x height, so 1 Kg x 9.8 x 6100 meter (estimated average origin of hail) = 5978 Joule so that means an 1 Kg ice ball coming in from above cools the ground about ~332.1 KJs worth. Not bad!

So we can see a convection cooling cycle to ~6100 meter that will cool the ground. Gravity is pushing heat out of the system this way. If you make active convection zones, where you make it more likely water evaporates you may be able to shield sunlight from warming other water and jettison the heat at the surface as the water returns frozen.

One can envisage a controlled convection column say at sea, with high absorbent layers to heat the air at its foot thus pulling in air over the water which increases evaporation. The whole thing looks similar to a solar updraft tower as existed in Spain for a while (it contained a wind turbine at the base of the chimney worked like a charm, was profitable but was broken down anyway as solar tech was reinvented several times to delay its advent).

There are other important facts most people don’t know about rain, hail, water vapor in the atmosphere. It seems that as the effect of water vapor was suspected to be significant it was -not- modelled very accurately or at all in climate scenarios. Now we need to learn more because we want it to rain, not to get cyclones or tornado’s, no huge hailstones etc. We will have to get a grip on weather as well as the climate.

Hailstorms should also be triggerable but more on that another time.

Heatpump Damaging Your Brain

I live in a building where a ventilator is constantly causing a low frequency sound. It is very soft, but deafening, I developed Tinitus. We can’t hear low frequencies very well so they sound soft, it is also hard to locate them, I have not managed to find the source. So I am stuck with the option to add sound proofing to my appartment, wear ear plugs or slowely go deaf.

Our brain is quite fragile. It has the consistency of soft butter. It is protected from the outside world by being ‘suspended’ in a liquid inside our skull. Vibrations can travel through the skull and liquid and brain just like they do through walls and doors and floors. The wave travels as a movement of contraction and expansion of the tissue, and this can break some neural pathways. We are all familiar with what happens when you wack someone against their skull, they can lose consciousness. Boxers and Footbal players and Rugby players can all suffer from brain damage, slow speech, ‘brainfog’.

A self professed expert on this topic assured me there is no brain damage from say heatpumps. But he was talking about easily recognizable debilitating brain damage, so parts of the brain actually gone. That is not what I think we should worry about. What we should worry about is erosion of pathways due to constant movement of the neural tissue, something that is very unnatural. As long as the movements are slow enough to allow the liquid ‘suspension system’ to help the brain accelerate and not rip apart, you can’t really say there is a problem. Horseback riding or driving in a noisy car come close.

Some publications that may be relevant

“Traumatic brain injuries could be caused by low-frequency vibrations”

“They team believe they have shown for the first time that brain injuries are caused by vibrational modes induced by impacts”

Ok this is by impacts, but they show that damage is done by waves traveling through the brain.

“Sounds you cant hear can still hurt your ears”

“”Low-frequency sound exposure has long been thought to be innocuous, and this study suggests that it’s not,””

The effect of low frequency noise (20-250 Hz)

”┬áthe subjects, regardless of the LFN sensitivity, showed tendency to make more errors during exposure to LFN than in the reference noise”

“The subjects categorized as high-sensitive to LFN also showed poorer performance than others during exposure to LFN in the Stroop Color-Word Test”

From this we can conclude low frequency noise disturbs brian function. How? By causing damage?

“Gavreau began to experiment with low-frequency acoustics with the intention of creating a viable audio weapon”

Mostly seemingly annecdotal evidence of the effect of infra sound on health.

“Inaudible High-Frequency Sounds Affect Brain Activity: Hypersonic Effect”

“Positron emission tomography measurements revealed that, when an HFC and an LFC were presented together, the rCBF in the brain stem and the left thalamus increased significantly compared with a sound lacking the HFC above 22 kHz but that was otherwise identical.”

Categories
albedoenhancement

Increasing Local Albedo

One of my quests at the moment is to get an accurate idea of what local albedo changes will do to temperature. This is to make it clear for people what they can do to lower temperatures, which can be life saving, not only human lifes but of all lives. I’m working with a climate expert to find answers. The scale we work on now is still crude : 9km x 9km.

A random location in Pakistan

The above shows a region in Pakistan, with farmland next to dry uncultivated land. Possibly because of an underground aquifer or river, but also because of temperature differences. The albedo of green land and sand is similar about 30%, just in a different spectral regions. The model shows the temperature distribution under ‘normal’ conditions.

Normal temperatures

This image shows the sandy area is actually cooler than the agricultural area. This can be because the green shrub and black soil absorp more heat. If you increase the albedo of the entire area you get this result..

Enhanced Albedo Temperatures

This is the area with higher albedo 80%. The agricultual land is much cooler, it seems almost 100 degrees Fahrenheit! But we effectively turned the whole area in a polar ice region. I am working on a more detailed model. What would happen if you add alternating rows of white soil (calcium) between vegetation? If you know good models let me know.

A good question is also : If you increase albedo and the temperatures drop, does that mean it will start to rain? To be continued..